►Most relevant organizations and resources
-many more useful links
IUCN Cat Specialist Group Information on species of wild cats and conservation projects
Carnivore Conservation Felid news, links, and excellent database
Cat Action Treasury Organizes and funds high priority conservation projects for all wild cats
Panthera Foundation Supporting and fostering the world’s leading wild felid conservationists
African Lion Working Group
Conservation, research, and management of wild lions in Africa
Save the Tiger Fund Sponsors effective efforts to stop the killing of wild tigers and empowering local people to live in balance with natural resources
New online resource:
Jaguar Conservation Network
A portal for information and collaboration between researchers, conservationists, and people affected by jaguar predation on livestock.
►Conservation projects addressing conflict -many more useful links
Cheetah Conservation Bostwana
Working with rural communities to promote coexistence with Botswana's rich diversity of predator species.
Cheetah Conservation Fund
Livestock management practices to eliminate the need for ranchers to kill cheetahs
Iranian Cheetah Society
Reducing human-cheetah conflict via implementing socio-economic plans
A Reserva Brasil project evaluating jaguars' population ecology, conflicts with humans, local opinions in private lands of the Mato Grosso
Leopard conservation in India
Conflict resolution and leopard conservation in a human dominated landscape
Living with Lions
The Laikipia Predator Project and the Kilimanjaro Lion Conservation Project work to save wild lions outside national parks
People and Jaguar/ Gente e Onças
A project of the Cristalino Ecological Foundation/Fundação Ecológica Cristalino studying social and cultural factors underlying jaguar persecution in Amazonia’s agricultural frontier
Save the Jaguar
The Wildlife Conservation Society Jaguar Conservation Program adresses predation conflicts
Saving the Amur leopard
Conservation projects for one of the most critically endangered species
Shashe Limpopo Predator Research Group
Collaboration across borders to study hotspots of human-predator conflict involving lions, leopards and cheetahs
Snow leopard Conservancy
Promoting innovative grassroots measures that lead local people to become better stewards of endangered snow leopards, their prey, and habitat.
Snow Leopard Trust
Protecting snow leopards in partnership with the people who share their mountain environment.
Status and Conservation of the Alpine lynx population
Part of KORA - coordinated research projects for the conservation and managamente of carnivores in Switzerland
Protecting Amur tigers and leopards in the wild, including compensation of livestock kills. Member of ALTA: the Amur Leopard and Tiger Alliance
►The problems - recent bibliography more publications
THE HUMAN DIMENSION
Conforti, V.A. and F.C.C. de Azevedo (2003) Local perceptions of jaguars (Panthera onca) and pumas (Puma concolor) in the Iguacu National Park area, south Brazil. Biological Conservation 111: 215-221 [abstract]
Dickman, A.J. (2005) An assessment of pastoralist attitudes and wildlife conflict in the Rungwa-Ruaha region, Tanzania, with particular reference to large carnivores Master of Science (M.Sc.) dissertation, University of Oxford. [abstract] [full text, pdf 1MB] Number of stock owned and proportion of losses attributed to predators were the most important determinants of conflict, with some inter-tribal variation in tolerance
Kellert, S.R., M. Black, C.R. Rush and A.J. Bath (1996). Human culture and large carnivore conservation in North America. Conservation Biology 10: 977-990 [abstract] Attitudes toward mountain lions have been highly ambivalent, never assuming the prominence or clarity of views on wolves
Manfredo, M. J., H. C. Zinn, L. Sikorowski and J. Jones (1998) Public acceptance of mountain lion management: a case study of Denver, Colorado, and nearby foothills areas. Wildlife Society Bulletin 26:964-970 [abstract]
Zimmermann, A.; Walpole, M.J. and Leader-Williams, N. (2005) Cattle ranchers’ attitudes to conflicts with jaguar Panthera onca in the Pantanal of Brazil. Oryx 39: 406–412 [abstract]Attitudes towards jaguars were mixed and more closely related to respondents’ age and relative wealth than to jaguar-related benefits through tourism or costs through cattle predation
LIVESTOCK PREDATION & ATTACKS ON HUMANS
Athreya, V.R., S.S. Thakur, S. Chaudhuri and A.V. Belsare (2004) A study of the man-leopard conflict in the Junnar Forest Division, Pune District, Maharashtra. Submitted to the Office of the Chief Wildlife Warden, Nagpur. Maharashtra Forest Department [Abstract] [link to pdf document]
Bagchi S. and C. Mishra (2006). Living with large carnivores: predation on livestock by the snow leopard (Uncia uncia). Journal of Zoology 268:3, 217-224 [abstract] Relative densities of livestock and wild prey may be reasonable predictors of the extent of predation, but by itself is not an adequate measure of the intensity of conflict even in apparently similar cultural settings.
Ernest, H.B. and Boyce, W.M. (2000) DNA identification of mountain lions involved in livestock predation and public safety incident and investigation. Pages 290-294 in Salmon, T.P and A.C. Crabb (eds) 19th Proceedings of the Vertebrate Pest Conference. University of California, Davis, USA [abstract]
Hoogesteijn, R., A. Hoogesteijn, and E. Mondolfi (1993)Jaguar predation and conservation: cattle mortality caused by felines on three ranches in the Venzuelan Llanos. Pp. 391-407 in M.G.N Dunstone and M.L. Gorman (editors). Mammals as predators. Series Symposia of the Zoological Society. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Inskip, C.and A. Zimmermann (2009) Human-felid conflict: a review of patterns and priorities worldwide. Oryx 43:18-34 [abstract] Patterns and determinants of the severity of felid conflicts, and a geographical overview worldwide. There is a need for evaluation of implemented management strategies.
Hussain, S. (2003) The status of the snow leopard in Pakistan and its conflict with local farmers. Oryx 37:26-33 [abstract]
Johnson, A., C. Vongkhamheng, M. Hedemark and T. Saithongdam (2006). Effects of human–carnivore conflict on tiger (Panthera tigris) and prey populations in Lao PDR. Animal Conservation 9(4): 421-430 [abstract] Zoning and changes in livestock husbandry needed to maintain tigers in the protected areas
Jorgensen, J.P. and K.H. Redford (1993). Humans and big cats as predators in the Neotropics. Pp. 367-390 in M.G.N Dunstone and M.L. Gorman, editors. Mammals as predators. Series Symposia of the Zoological Society. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Kissui, B. (2008) Livestock predation by lions, leopards, spotted hyenas, and their vulnerability to retaliatory killing in the Maasai steppe, Tanzania. Animal Conservation 11: 422-432 [asbtract] Complex interactions of social and ecological dimensions of livestock predation and retaliation. Any conservation intervention should strive to address conflict at the appropriate social scale.
Marker, L.L., A.J. Dickman, M.G.L. Mills, and D.W. Macdonald. (2003). Aspects of the management of cheetahs trapped on Namibian farmlands. Biological Conservation 114:401-412 [abstract] Cheetahs reported live-trapped or killed on Namibian farmlands due to a perceived threat to livestock or game
Marker, L.L., J.R. Muntifering, A.J. Dickman, M.G.L. Mills and D.W. Macdonald (2003) Quantifying prey preferences of free-ranging Namibian cheetahs. South African Journal of Wildlife 33: 43-53 [abstract]
Nyhus, P.J. and R. Tilson (2004) Characterizing human-tiger conflict in Sumatra, Indonesia: implications for conservation. Oryx 38:68-74 [abstract]
Odden, J.; Herfindal, I.; Linnell, J.D.C.; Andersen, R. (2008) Vulnerability of domestic sheep to lynx depredation in relation to roe deer density. Journal of Wildlife Management 72: 276-282 [abstract] The results suggest that livestock, rather than being actively selected, are mainly killed by lynx incidentally.
Packer, C., D. Ikanda, B. Kissui and H. Kushnir (2005) Conservation biology: Lion attacks on humans in Tanzania Nature 436, 927-928. Researchers propose measures to curb lion attacks in Tanzania
Patterson, B.D., S. M. Kasiki, E. Selempo and R.W. Kays (2004). Livestock predation by lions (Panthera leo) and other carnivores on ranches neighboring Tsavo National Parks, Kenya. Biological Conservation 119(4):507-516 [abstract]
Saberwal, V.K., J.P. Gibbs, R. Chellam and A.J.T. Johnsingh (1994) Lion-human conflict in the Gir forest, India. Conservation Biology 8: 501-7 [abstract] Reasons for hindering support among local to protect Asiatic lions (Panthera leo persica)
Sangay,T and K. Vernes (2008). Human-wildlife conflict in the Kingdom of Bhutan: Patterns of livestock predation by large mammalian carnivores. Biological Conservation 141: 1272-1282. [abstract] Several northern districts were identified as `predation hotspots', where proportions. Recommendations.
Selebatso, M.; Moe, S.; Swenson, J. (2008) Do farmers support cheetah Acinonyx jubatus conservation in Botswana despite livestock depredation? Oryx 42: 430-436 [abstract]. The level of farmers' support for cheetah conservation beyond protected areas was: high on private farms, moderate in wildlife management areas, and low on communal lands.
Woodroffe & Frank (2005) Lethal control of African lions (Panthera leo): local and regional population impacts Animal Conservation 8: 91-98 [abstract]
Baker, P.J., A.J. Bentley, R.J. Ansell and S. Harris (2005). Impact of predation by domestic cats Felis catus in an urban area. Mammal Review 35(3-4):302-312 [abstract].
►The solutions - recent bibliography more publications
COMPENSATION & INSURANCE
Mishra, C., P. Allen, T. McCarthy, M. D. Madhusudan, A. Bayarjargal and H.H.T. Prins (2003) The role of incentive programs in conserving the snow leopard. Conservation Biology 17:1512-1520 [abstract]
Madhusudan, M. D. (2003). Living amidst large wildlife: Livestock and crop depredation by large mammals in the interior villages of Bhadra Tiger Reserve, south India. Environmental Management 31:466-475. [abstract] The extent of material and monetary loss due to conflicts with large felines and elephants: compensation scheme has largely failed to alleviating loss
Verdade, L. M. and C.B. Campos (2004) How much is a puma worth? Economic compensation as an alternative for the conflict between wildlife compensation and livestock production in Brazil. Biota Neotropica Vol. 4, No. 2 (full text online) [abstract]
LIVESTOCK GUARDING & OTHER TECHNIQUES
Andelt, W.F. (1999) Relative effectiveness of guarding-dog breeds to deter predation on domestic sheep in Colorado. Wildlife Society Bulletin 27(3): 706-14 [abstract]
Andelt, W.F. (2004). Use of livestock guarding animals to reduce predation on livestock. Sheep & Goat Research Journal 19 [abstract]
Hoogesteijn, R., and A. Hoogesteijn, 2008. Conflicts betwen cattle ranching and large predators in Venezuela: could use of water buffalo facilitate felid conservation? Oryx 42(1): 132-138 [abstract] Livestock mortality associated with jaguar and puma may be reduced by keeping buffaloes and cattle in the same paddock, or by keeping only buffalo
Marker, L., A.J. Dickman and D. Macdonald (2005). Perceived effectiveness of Livestock Guarding Dogs placed on Namibian Farms. Journal of Rangeland Management. 58(4): 329-336 [abstract]
Marker, L., A. J. Dickman and D. W. Macdonald (2005). Survivorship and causes of mortality for livestock-guarding dogs on Namibian rangeland. Journal of Rangeland Management 58(4): 337-343 [abstract]
Ogada, M.O., R. Woodroffe, N.O. Oguge and L.G. Frank (2003). Limiting depredation by African carnivores: the role of livestock husbandry. Conservation Biology 17: 1521–30 [abstract] Livestock husbandry had a clear effect on rates of depredation and hence on the numbers of predators killed.
Palmeira, F.B., P.G. Crawshaw, C.M. Haddad, K.M.P.M.B. Ferraz, L.M. Verdade, 2008. Cattle depredation by puma (Puma concolor) and jaguar (Panthera onca) in central-western Brazil. Biological Conservation 141:118-125 [abstract] Concentrated breeding and calving seasons, and keeping calves far from forest areas, would reduce depredation .
Rigg, R. (2001) Livestock guarding dogs: their current use world wide. IUCN/SSC Canid Specialist Group Occasional Paper No 1 [pdf 540KB]
REPELLENTS & ADVERSIVE APPROACHES
Shivik, J.A. (2006). Tools for the Edge: What's New for Conserving Carnivores. BioScience 56(3): 253–259 [abstract]. Technological advances have led to many new, commercially available methods for predation management. Evaluating the biological and economic efficiency of disruptive-stimulus and aversive-stimulus approaches is important
Shivi, J.A., Treves, A. and Callahan, P. (2003) Nonlethal techniques for managing predation: Primary and secondary repellents. Conservation Biology 17(6):1531-1537 [abstract] The studies highlight the complexity of application of nonlethal techniques in real-world situations. Behavior-contingent audio and visual repellents in a multipredator study in the United States
TRANSLOCATIONS & OTHER APPROACHES
Goodrich, J.M. and D.G. Miquelle (2005). Translocation of problem Amur tigers Panthera tigris altaica to alleviate tiger-human conflicts. Oryx 39(4):454-457 [abstract] At least in some cases, translocation appears to be a viable alternative to killing or removing problem tigers from the wild
Monirul M. and H. Khan (2009) Can domestic dogs save humans from tigers Panthera tigris? Oryx 43:44-47 [abstract] Keeping one tethered dog with each group of people working in the mangrove forest reduces the risk of being attacked by tigers.
►Practical conflict resolucion manuals - many more manuals
New! Guia de Convivência Gente & Onças (Guidelines for the coexistence of people and jaguars)
Silvio Marchini & Ricardo Luciano (2007), Projeto Conviver Gente & Onças; Fundaçao Ecológica Cristalino and Wildlife Conservation Research Unit. Illustrated guide to inform landowners and the public at large about jaguar ecology, depredation problems and conservation issues. It also intends to foster a naturalistic appreciation of jaguars by providing practical information on how to find and record their signs, and observe them in captivity and in the wild. English and Spanish versions coming soon. pdf ~3MB (in portuguese)
Living with Panthers By the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation commission (2007) A brochure from collaborations between a number of agencies and organizations, with guidelines for residents in Florida panther habitat (pdf ~5MB)
Initial response protocol for problem felids
Scott Silver (2007) Jaguar Conservation Program, Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS). Concise guidelines for an immediate response upon receiving a report of a problem cat (pdf 20KB)
Manual on the problem of depredation caused by jaguars and pumas on cattle ranches
Rafael Hoogesteijn (2007), Wildlife Conservation Society and IUCN Cat Specialist Group. The aim of this publication is to help ranchers understand the problem of depredation, how to identify the animal responsible for depredation and what steps to take in the management of their herds to diminish its occurrence.(pdf ~150KB english, spanish, portuguese)
Human-leopard conflict management guidelines.
Athreya, V.R. & Belsare, A.V (2007). Kaati Trust, Pune. India. Practical guidelines to handle the problem of human-leopard conflict management from an ecological perspective; originally designed for the field officers of the Maharashtra Forest Department, India. (pdf 3MB)
Livestock guarding dogs: their current use worldwide.
Robin Rigg (2001) History and current use of livestock guarding dogs to protect from depredation by predators. Includes description of the breeds, and advice on acquiring and raising dogs to be successful guardians. (pdf 540 KB)
Helping producers manage predation
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Wildlife Services (2002). Seven-page manual providing advice and guidelines to help producers avoid livestock depredation (pdf 376 Kb)
Livestock guarding dogs: preventing sheep from predators
Jeffrey S. Green and Roger A. Woodruff. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Wildlife Services (1999) 32-page manual providing information and guidelines on the use of livestock-guarding dogs (pdf 11.4 MB)
Electric fencing guide
Seth Johnson, James Jonkel and Patricia Sowka, Living with Wildlife Foundation (2005) Contains information about electric fencing designs that can be used to help deter predators, including bears, mountain lions and wolves. 38 page (pdf 4.9 MB)